Page 14 - NIS English November16-30
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Special Report  Constitution Day

        THE CHAKRA                           FLAG CODE

             l At  the  centre  of        l On January 26, 2002, the Indian Flag Code was modified after
               the white  band is a         almost 55 years of Independence, allowing the people of India
               24-spoke  navy-blue          to hoist the National Flag at their homes, offices and facto-
               chakra  called  Dhar-        ries every day and not just on National days as was the case
               ma Chakra.  Taken            earlier.  Now  Indians  can  proudly  display  the  National  Flag
               from  the  Lion  Cap-        anywhere and anytime, as long as the provisions of the Flag
               ital of the Ashokan          Code are strictly followed to avoid any inadvertant disrespect
               pillar, the "wheel of        to the Tricolour. For the sake of convenience, the Flag Code
               the law" 'symbolises         of India, 2002, has been divided into three parts: Part I of the
               the progressiveness          Code contains general description of the National Flag; Part
               of  the  country.  Its       II of the Code is devoted to the display of the National Flag
               diameter     approxi-        by members of public, private organisations, educational in-
               mates  to  the  width        stitutions, etc; and Part III of the Code relates to display of
               of the white band            the National Flag by Central and State governments and their
                                            organisations and agencies.


        The Indian Flag has undergone many changes since its first inception during the struggle for freedom. Some
        of the historical milestones in the evolution of Indian Flag are:
        l The first national flag in India is said to have been hoisted on August 7, 1906, in the Parsee Bagan Square
           (Green Park) in Calcutta (now Kolkata). The flag comprised three horizontal strips of red, yellow and green.
        l The second flag was hoisted in 1907 in Paris by Madame Cama and her band of exiled revolutionaries.
           This was similar to the first flag. This flag was also exhibited at a socialist conference in Berlin.
        l The third flag went up in 1917 when the political struggle had taken a definite turn. Annie Besant and Lok-
           manya Tilak hoisted it during the Home Rule movement. This flag had five red and four green horizontal
           stripes arranged alternately, with seven stars in the saptarishi configuration super-imposed on them. In the
           left-hand top corner (the pole end) was the Union Jack. There was also a white crescent and star in one
         l During the 1921 session of the All India Congress Committee at Bezwada (now Vijayawada) an Andhra
           youth Pingali Venkayya prepared a flag and took it to Gandhiji. It was made up of two colours, red and
           green, representing the two major communities i.e. Hindus and Muslims. The flag adopted in 1931. This
           flag was also the battle ensign of the Indian National Army.
        l The year 1931 was a landmark in the history of the flag. A resolution was passed adopting a tricolor flag as
           our national flag. This flag, the forerunner of the present one, was saffron, white and green with Mahatma
           Gandhi's charkha (spinning wheel) at the centre. It was, however, clarified that it bore no communal signif-
           icance and was not to be interpreted thus.
        l On July 22, 1947, the Constituent Assembly adopted it as Free India National Flag. After the Independence,
           the colours and their significance remained the same. Only the Dharma Chakra of Emperor Ashoka re-
           placed the spinning wheel at the centre.

        12  New India Samachar
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